Human Development Index (HDI)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by economist Mahbub ul Haq, followed by economist Amartya Sen in 1990. United Nation Development Program (UNDP) publishes an annual Human Development Report (since 1990) to measure and analyze developmental progress.
HDI Calculation :
Human Development Report the HDI combines three dimensions:
- A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
- Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
- A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)
Human Development Index (HDI) report 2013 :
The 2013 Human Development Report – “The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World” – was launched on 14 March in Mexico City by President Enrique Peña Nieto of Mexico and UNDP Administrator Helen Clark.
- India was at ranked at 136 among 187 countries this year.
- The HDI report placed India at the near-bottom of countries which have reached ‘medium development. India’s HDI has risen by 1.7% annually since 1990.
- Two countries—the Islamic Republic of Iran and Sri Lanka are in the high human development group, three (Maldives, India and Bhutan) are in the medium and the remaining four (Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and Afghanistan) are in the low human development group.
- The average HDI value for the region is 0.558, below the world average of 0.693.
- Between 2000 and 2012, the region registered annual growth of 1.43 percent in HDI value, which is the highest compared to other regions. Looking at individual countries in the region, Afghanistan achieved the fastest growth with 3.9 percent, followed by Pakistan with 1.7 percent and then India at 1.5 percent. The least growth was registered by Sri Lanka (0.7 percent).
- The region’s average life expectancy at birth is 66.2 years, nearly four years below the world average of 70.1 and more than eight years below the average for Latin America and the Caribbean, which has the highest average life expectancy at birth.
- Average years of schooling of 4.7 for the region ties with sub-Saharan Africa in the bottom position and is 2.8 years below the world average.
- The average gross national income (GNI) per capita of $3,343 is only one-third the world average of $10,184.
- The region is ranked fifth out of six regions in terms of overall loss to HDI due to inequality in distribution. The loss to potential HDI value is about 6 percentage points higher than the world’s average loss of 23.3 percent. Loss due to inequality is highest in education (42 percent) followed by health (27 percent).
- The biggest loss due to inequalities is suffered by Nepal (34.2 percent) followed by Pakistan (30.9 percent). The country suffering the least loss in the region is Sri Lanka (15.1 percent).
- Bangladesh has the highest Multidimensional Poverty Index value based on 2007 survey data followed by India. The headcount ratio, (i.e. the percentage of the population suffering over-lapping deprivation) is 57.8 percent for Bangladesh and 53.7 percent for India. These translate into 83.2 million people in Bangladesh and 612.3 million people in India who suffer overlapping deprivation.
- India leads in the region exporting goods to the tune of $220.4 billion in 2010, representing 14.5 percent of its GDP in that year. This is followed by Islamic Republic of Iran ($83.8 billion) and then Sri Lanka ($8.3 billion) representing 25.3 percent and 18.1 percentof their respective GDPs.
- The region’s average employment-to-population ratio is 61.2 percent, below the world average of 65.8 percent. There is wide variation across countries ranging from a low employment-to-population ratio of 46.1 percent in Islamic Republic of Iran to 86.4 percent in Nepal.
- Child labour is relatively high in Nepal, where more than one-third of children of ages five to 14 years are economically active. The lowest is observed in India (12 percent).
- The average overall life satisfaction based on the Gallup World Poll for the region is 4.7, making it the second most dissatisfied region after sub-Saharan Africa.
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) :
It was developed in 2010 by Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative and the United Nations Development Programme.
Multidimensional poverty is made up of several factors that constitute poor people’s experience of deprivation – such as poor health, lack of education, inadequate living standard, lack of income (as one of several factors considered), disempowerment, poor quality of work and threat from violence. It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index.
The countries with the highest percentages of ‘MPI poor’ are all in Africa: Ethiopia (87%), Liberia (84%), Mozambique (79%) and Sierra Leone (77%). Yet the largest absolute numbers of multi dimensionally poor people live in South Asia, including 612 million in India alone.
Gender Inequality Index (GII):
A new index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure which captures the loss of achievement, within a country, due to gender inequality, and uses three dimensions to do so: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation. The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings of the previous, and no longer used, indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM).
Source : http://hdr.undp.org